Each country that signs the Paris Agreement sets a target known as the National Contribution (NDC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 2030. But the first round, in 2015, was not enough to achieve the Paris objective of keeping global warming well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels, with the objective of aiming for a limit of 1.5°C. The high-security emission reductions promised under the agreement are ambitious, but drastic measures are urgently needed if we are to limit global warming to a safe level. As Kumi Naidoo, director general of Greenpeace International, said after the agreement was reached in Paris last year, “This agreement will not get us out of the hole we are in, but it makes the sides less steep.” The Paris agreement is not without criticism and it is not the agreement that everyone wanted. Many believe that emissions targets are not enough and that stricter targets are needed to reduce the effects of climate change. Some are also concerned that some of the agreement`s commitments are not legally binding and, more recently, the president-elect of the United States has raised concerns by promising to remove the United States (responsible for 17.8% of global emissions) from the agreement. The relative strength of these objectives depends not only on the date and nature of the obligation – defined in legislation or defined as government policy – but also and above all on the achievement of the objective. This makes international comparisons difficult. The first thing to consider is that the Paris Agreement has been signed by nearly 200 countries and ratified by 111 countries (including China, India, and the United States).
Compared to previous attempts to set global emissions targets such as the Kyoto Protocol, a consensus on the threats to climate change on this scale could almost be seen as a victory in itself. The UK`s target under the 2015 Paris Agreement, when it shared a joint emissions plan with the EU, called for a 53% reduction by 2030. However, this was widely seen as non-extensible and the UK also had a national carbon budget under the Climate Change Act, which required an average reduction of 57% between 2028 and 2032. We look at what all this means and why this historic agreement is so important. Jill Duggan, Director of the Prince of Wales` Corporate Leaders Group (CLG), said: “The UK Government`s ratification of the agreement today sends an important signal to international allies, businesses and investors about the inevitable transition to a carbon-free economy.” Johnson is hosting a preliminary meeting of world heads of state and government next month, the fifth anniversary of the Paris Agreement. It should use the 2020 Climate Ambition Summit plan to encourage other countries to follow suit. As part of the Paris Agreement, all countries must present new emission reduction targets for the next decade by the end of this year. The UK officially presented on Thursday evening (3 December) the target of reducing emissions by 68% by 2030 compared to 1990. The target will serve as a National Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement, which will define the national measures needed by each country to contribute to the implementation of the Global Agreement. The new target is in line with the recommendation of the Climate Change Committee (CCC), which has debated the 2050 net-zero target and will soon publish guidelines for future carbon budgets.
The “minimum” was originally intended to cover a possible exclusion from aviation (the rest of the economy had to do more). . . .